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authorOri Bernstein <ori@eigenstate.org>2016-02-22 11:17:40 -0800
committerOri Bernstein <ori@eigenstate.org>2016-02-22 11:17:40 -0800
commit100ed8406343f027aa442e79fe59c653c8fc02a4 (patch)
tree7f0a173b62530ce94cd9a036dc6badf0d7ad2f3b /util
parent74707c5daf432fe8310312021eb775e7a716dbe3 (diff)
downloadmc-100ed8406343f027aa442e79fe59c653c8fc02a4.tar.gz
Extract util functions into separate dir from parse/
Diffstat (limited to 'util')
-rw-r--r--util/htab.c288
-rw-r--r--util/util.c516
-rw-r--r--util/util.h129
3 files changed, 933 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/util/htab.c b/util/htab.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7c616b7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/util/htab.c
@@ -0,0 +1,288 @@
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdarg.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "util.h"
+
+#define Initsz 16
+
+/* Creates a new empty hash table, using 'hash' as the
+ * hash funciton, and 'cmp' to verify that there are no
+ * hash collisions. */
+Htab *mkht(ulong (*hash)(void *key), int (*cmp)(void *k1, void *k2))
+{
+ Htab *ht;
+
+ ht = xalloc(sizeof(Htab));
+ ht->nelt = 0;
+ ht->ndead = 0;
+ ht->sz = Initsz;
+ ht->hash = hash;
+ ht->cmp = cmp;
+ ht->keys = zalloc(Initsz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->vals = zalloc(Initsz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->hashes = zalloc(Initsz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->dead = zalloc(Initsz * sizeof(char));
+
+ return ht;
+}
+
+/* Frees a hash table. Passing this function
+ * NULL is a no-op. */
+void htfree(Htab *ht)
+{
+ if (!ht)
+ return;
+ free(ht->keys);
+ free(ht->vals);
+ free(ht->hashes);
+ free(ht->dead);
+ free(ht);
+}
+
+/* Offsets the hash so that '0' can be
+ * used as a 'no valid value */
+static ulong hash(Htab *ht, void *k)
+{
+ ulong h;
+ h = ht->hash(k);
+ if (h == 0)
+ return 1;
+ else
+ return h;
+}
+
+/* Resizes the hash table by copying all
+ * the old keys into the right slots in a
+ * new table. */
+static void grow(Htab *ht, int sz)
+{
+ void **oldk;
+ void **oldv;
+ ulong *oldh;
+ char *oldd;
+ int oldsz;
+ int i;
+
+ oldk = ht->keys;
+ oldv = ht->vals;
+ oldh = ht->hashes;
+ oldd = ht->dead;
+ oldsz = ht->sz;
+
+ ht->nelt = 0;
+ ht->ndead = 0;
+ ht->sz = sz;
+ ht->keys = zalloc(sz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->vals = zalloc(sz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->hashes = zalloc(sz * sizeof(void *));
+ ht->dead = zalloc(sz * sizeof(void *));
+
+ for (i = 0; i < oldsz; i++)
+ if (oldh[i] && !oldd[i])
+ htput(ht, oldk[i], oldv[i]);
+
+ free(oldh);
+ free(oldk);
+ free(oldv);
+ free(oldd);
+}
+
+/* Inserts 'k' into the hash table, possibly
+ * killing any previous key that compares
+ * as equal. */
+int htput(Htab *ht, void *k, void *v)
+{
+ int i;
+ ulong h;
+ int di;
+
+ di = 0;
+ h = hash(ht, k);
+ i = h & (ht->sz - 1);
+ while (ht->hashes[i] && !ht->dead[i]) {
+ /* second insertion overwrites first. nb, we shouldn't touch the
+ * keys for dead values */
+ if (ht->hashes[i] == h) {
+ if (ht->dead[i])
+ break;
+ else if (ht->cmp(ht->keys[i], k))
+ goto conflicted;
+ }
+ di++;
+ i = (h + di) & (ht->sz - 1);
+ }
+ ht->nelt++;
+conflicted:
+ if (ht->dead[i])
+ ht->ndead--;
+ ht->hashes[i] = h;
+ ht->keys[i] = k;
+ ht->vals[i] = v;
+ ht->dead[i] = 0;
+
+ if (ht->sz < ht->nelt * 2)
+ grow(ht, ht->sz * 2);
+ if (ht->sz < ht->ndead * 4)
+ grow(ht, ht->sz);
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/* Finds the index that we would insert
+ * the key into */
+static ssize_t htidx(Htab *ht, void *k)
+{
+ ssize_t i;
+ ulong h;
+ int di;
+
+ di = 0;
+ h = hash(ht, k);
+ i = h & (ht->sz - 1);
+ while (ht->hashes[i] && !ht->dead[i] && ht->hashes[i] != h) {
+searchmore:
+ di++;
+ i = (h + di) & (ht->sz - 1);
+ }
+ if (!ht->hashes[i])
+ return -1;
+ if ((ht->hashes[i] == h && ht->dead[i]) || !ht->cmp(ht->keys[i], k))
+ goto searchmore; /* collision */
+ return i;
+}
+
+/* Looks up a key, returning NULL if
+ * the value is not present. Note,
+ * if NULL is a valid value, you need
+ * to check with hthas() to see if it's
+ * not there */
+void *htget(Htab *ht, void *k)
+{
+ ssize_t i;
+
+ i = htidx(ht, k);
+ if (i < 0)
+ return NULL;
+ else
+ return ht->vals[i];
+}
+
+void htdel(Htab *ht, void *k)
+{
+ ssize_t i;
+
+ i = htidx(ht, k);
+ if (i < 0)
+ return;
+ assert(!ht->dead[i]);
+ assert(ht->hashes[i]);
+ ht->dead[i] = 1;
+ ht->nelt--;
+ ht->ndead++;
+}
+
+/* Tests for 'k's presence in 'ht' */
+int hthas(Htab *ht, void *k) { return htidx(ht, k) >= 0; }
+
+/* Returns a list of all keys in the hash
+ * table, storing the size of the returned
+ * array in 'nkeys'. NB: the value returned
+ * is allocated on the heap, and it is the
+ * job of the caller to free it */
+void **htkeys(Htab *ht, size_t *nkeys)
+{
+ void **k;
+ size_t i, j;
+
+ j = 0;
+ k = xalloc(sizeof(void *) * ht->nelt);
+ for (i = 0; i < ht->sz; i++)
+ if (ht->hashes[i] && !ht->dead[i])
+ k[j++] = ht->keys[i];
+ *nkeys = ht->nelt;
+ return k;
+}
+
+ulong strhash(void *_s)
+{
+ char *s;
+ ulong h;
+ ulong g;
+
+ s = _s;
+ h = 0;
+ while (s && *s) {
+ h = ((h << 4) + *s++);
+
+ if ((g = (h & 0xF0000000)))
+ h ^= (g >> 24);
+
+ h &= ~g;
+ }
+ return h;
+}
+
+int streq(void *a, void *b)
+{
+ if (a == b)
+ return 1;
+ if (a == NULL || b == NULL)
+ return 0;
+ return !strcmp(a, b);
+}
+
+ulong strlithash(void *_s)
+{
+ Str *s;
+ ulong h, g, i;
+
+ s = _s;
+ h = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < s->len; i++) {
+ h = ((h << 4) + s->buf[i]);
+
+ if ((g = (h & 0xF0000000)))
+ h ^= (g >> 24);
+
+ h &= ~g;
+ }
+ return h;
+}
+
+int strliteq(void *_a, void *_b)
+{
+ Str *a, *b;
+
+ a = _a;
+ b = _b;
+ if (a == b)
+ return 1;
+ if (a == NULL || b == NULL)
+ return 0;
+ if (a->len != b->len)
+ return 0;
+ return !memcmp(a, b, a->len);
+}
+
+ulong ptrhash(void *key) { return inthash((uintptr_t)key); }
+
+ulong inthash(uint64_t key)
+{
+ uintptr_t h;
+
+ h = (uintptr_t)key;
+ h *= 357913941;
+ h ^= h << 24;
+ h += ~357913941;
+ h ^= h >> 31;
+ h ^= h << 31;
+ return h;
+}
+
+int inteq(uint64_t a, uint64_t b) { return a == b; }
+
+int ptreq(void *a, void *b) { return a == b; }
diff --git a/util/util.c b/util/util.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2e95786
--- /dev/null
+++ b/util/util.c
@@ -0,0 +1,516 @@
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <stdarg.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <assert.h>
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+#include "util.h"
+
+/* malloc wrappers */
+void *zalloc(size_t sz)
+{
+ void *mem;
+
+ mem = calloc(1, sz);
+ if (!mem && sz)
+ die("Out of memory");
+ return mem;
+}
+
+void *xalloc(size_t sz)
+{
+ void *mem;
+
+ mem = malloc(sz);
+ if (!mem && sz)
+ die("Out of memory");
+ return mem;
+}
+
+void *zrealloc(void *mem, size_t oldsz, size_t sz)
+{
+ char *p;
+
+ p = xrealloc(mem, sz);
+ if (sz > oldsz)
+ memset(&p[oldsz], 0, sz - oldsz);
+ return p;
+}
+
+void *xrealloc(void *mem, size_t sz)
+{
+ mem = realloc(mem, sz);
+ if (!mem && sz)
+ die("Out of memory");
+ return mem;
+}
+
+
+/* Some systems don't have strndup. */
+char *strdupn(char *s, size_t len)
+{
+ char *ret;
+
+ ret = xalloc(len + 1);
+ memcpy(ret, s, len);
+ ret[len] = '\0';
+ return ret;
+}
+
+char *strjoin(char *u, char *v)
+{
+ size_t n;
+ char *s;
+
+ n = strlen(u) + strlen(v) + 1;
+ s = xalloc(n);
+ bprintf(s, n + 1, "%s%s", u, v);
+ return s;
+}
+
+void *memdup(void *mem, size_t len)
+{
+ void *ret;
+
+ if (!mem)
+ return NULL;
+ ret = xalloc(len);
+ return memcpy(ret, mem, len);
+}
+
+/* lists */
+void lappend(void *l, size_t *len, void *n)
+{
+ void ***pl;
+
+ pl = l;
+ *pl = xrealloc(*pl, (*len + 1) * sizeof(void *));
+ (*pl)[*len] = n;
+ (*len)++;
+}
+
+void *lpop(void *l, size_t *len)
+{
+ void ***pl;
+ void *v;
+
+ pl = l;
+ (*len)--;
+ v = (*pl)[*len];
+ *pl = xrealloc(*pl, *len * sizeof(void *));
+ return v;
+}
+
+void linsert(void *p, size_t *len, size_t idx, void *v)
+{
+ void ***pl, **l;
+
+ pl = p;
+ *pl = xrealloc(*pl, (*len + 1) * sizeof(void *));
+ l = *pl;
+
+ memmove(&l[idx + 1], &l[idx], (*len - idx) * sizeof(void *));
+ l[idx] = v;
+ (*len)++;
+}
+
+void ldel(void *p, size_t *len, size_t idx)
+{
+ void ***pl, **l;
+
+ assert(p != NULL);
+ assert(idx < *len);
+ pl = p;
+ l = *pl;
+ memmove(&l[idx], &l[idx + 1], (*len - idx - 1) * sizeof(void *));
+ (*len)--;
+ *pl = xrealloc(l, *len * sizeof(void *));
+}
+
+void lcat(void *dst, size_t *ndst, void *src, size_t nsrc)
+{
+ size_t i;
+ void ***d, **s;
+
+ d = dst;
+ s = src;
+ for (i = 0; i < nsrc; i++)
+ lappend(d, ndst, s[i]);
+}
+
+void lfree(void *l, size_t *len)
+{
+ void ***pl;
+
+ assert(l != NULL);
+ pl = l;
+ free(*pl);
+ *pl = NULL;
+ *len = 0;
+}
+
+/* endian packing */
+void be64(vlong v, byte buf[8])
+{
+ buf[0] = (v >> 56) & 0xff;
+ buf[1] = (v >> 48) & 0xff;
+ buf[2] = (v >> 40) & 0xff;
+ buf[3] = (v >> 32) & 0xff;
+ buf[4] = (v >> 24) & 0xff;
+ buf[5] = (v >> 16) & 0xff;
+ buf[6] = (v >> 8) & 0xff;
+ buf[7] = (v >> 0) & 0xff;
+}
+
+vlong host64(byte buf[8])
+{
+ vlong v = 0;
+
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[0] << 56LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[1] << 48LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[2] << 40LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[3] << 32LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[4] << 24LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[5] << 16LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[6] << 8LL);
+ v |= ((vlong)buf[7] << 0LL);
+ return v;
+}
+
+void be32(long v, byte buf[4])
+{
+ buf[0] = (v >> 24) & 0xff;
+ buf[1] = (v >> 16) & 0xff;
+ buf[2] = (v >> 8) & 0xff;
+ buf[3] = (v >> 0) & 0xff;
+}
+
+long host32(byte buf[4])
+{
+ int32_t v = 0;
+ v |= ((long)buf[0] << 24);
+ v |= ((long)buf[1] << 16);
+ v |= ((long)buf[2] << 8);
+ v |= ((long)buf[3] << 0);
+ return v;
+}
+
+void wrbuf(FILE *fd, void *p, size_t sz)
+{
+ size_t n;
+ char *buf;
+
+ n = 0;
+ buf = p;
+ while (n < sz) {
+ n += fwrite(buf + n, 1, sz - n, fd);
+ if (feof(fd))
+ die("Unexpected EOF");
+ if (ferror(fd))
+ die("Error writing");
+ }
+}
+
+void rdbuf(FILE *fd, void *buf, size_t sz)
+{
+ size_t n;
+
+ n = sz;
+ while (n > 0) {
+ n -= fread(buf, 1, n, fd);
+ if (feof(fd))
+ die("Unexpected EOF");
+ if (ferror(fd))
+ die("Error writing");
+ }
+}
+
+void wrbyte(FILE *fd, char val)
+{
+ if (fputc(val, fd) == EOF)
+ die("Unexpected EOF");
+}
+
+char rdbyte(FILE *fd)
+{
+ int c;
+ c = fgetc(fd);
+ if (c == EOF)
+ die("Unexpected EOF");
+ return c;
+}
+
+void wrint(FILE *fd, long val)
+{
+ byte buf[4];
+ be32(val, buf);
+ wrbuf(fd, buf, 4);
+}
+
+long rdint(FILE *fd)
+{
+ byte buf[4];
+ rdbuf(fd, buf, 4);
+ return host32(buf);
+}
+
+void wrstr(FILE *fd, char *val)
+{
+ size_t len;
+
+ if (!val) {
+ wrint(fd, -1);
+ } else {
+ wrint(fd, strlen(val));
+ len = strlen(val);
+ wrbuf(fd, val, len);
+ }
+}
+
+char *rdstr(FILE *fd)
+{
+ ssize_t len;
+ char *s;
+
+ len = rdint(fd);
+ if (len == -1) {
+ return NULL;
+ } else {
+ s = xalloc(len + 1);
+ rdbuf(fd, s, len);
+ s[len] = '\0';
+ return s;
+ }
+}
+
+void wrlenstr(FILE *fd, Str str)
+{
+ wrint(fd, str.len);
+ wrbuf(fd, str.buf, str.len);
+}
+
+void rdlenstr(FILE *fd, Str *str)
+{
+ str->len = rdint(fd);
+ str->buf = xalloc(str->len + 1);
+ rdbuf(fd, str->buf, str->len);
+ str->buf[str->len] = '\0';
+}
+
+void wrflt(FILE *fd, double val)
+{
+ byte buf[8];
+ /* Assumption: We have 'val' in 64 bit IEEE format */
+ union {
+ uvlong ival;
+ double fval;
+ } u;
+
+ u.fval = val;
+ be64(u.ival, buf);
+ wrbuf(fd, buf, 8);
+}
+
+double rdflt(FILE *fd)
+{
+ byte buf[8];
+ union {
+ uvlong ival;
+ double fval;
+ } u;
+
+ if (fread(buf, 8, 1, fd) < 8)
+ die("Unexpected EOF");
+ u.ival = host64(buf);
+ return u.fval;
+}
+
+size_t bprintf(char *buf, size_t sz, char *fmt, ...)
+{
+ va_list ap;
+ size_t n;
+
+ va_start(ap, fmt);
+ n = vsnprintf(buf, sz, fmt, ap);
+ if (n >= sz)
+ n = sz;
+ va_end(ap);
+
+ return n;
+}
+
+void wrbool(FILE *fd, int val) { wrbyte(fd, val); }
+
+int rdbool(FILE *fd) { return rdbyte(fd); }
+
+char *swapsuffix(char *buf, size_t sz, char *s, char *suf, char *swap)
+{
+ size_t slen, suflen, swaplen;
+
+ slen = strlen(s);
+ suflen = strlen(suf);
+ swaplen = strlen(swap);
+
+ if (slen < suflen)
+ return NULL;
+ if (slen + swaplen >= sz)
+ die("swapsuffix: buf too small");
+
+ buf[0] = '\0';
+ /* if we have matching suffixes */
+ if (suflen < slen && !strcmp(suf, &s[slen - suflen])) {
+ strncat(buf, s, slen - suflen);
+ strncat(buf, swap, swaplen);
+ } else {
+ bprintf(buf, sz, "%s%s", s, swap);
+ }
+
+ return buf;
+}
+
+size_t max(size_t a, size_t b)
+{
+ if (a > b)
+ return a;
+ else
+ return b;
+}
+
+size_t min(size_t a, size_t b)
+{
+ if (a < b)
+ return a;
+ else
+ return b;
+}
+
+size_t align(size_t sz, size_t a)
+{
+ /* align to 0 just returns sz */
+ if (a == 0)
+ return sz;
+ return (sz + a - 1) & ~(a - 1);
+}
+
+void indentf(int depth, char *fmt, ...)
+{
+ va_list ap;
+ va_start(ap, fmt);
+ vfindentf(stdout, depth, fmt, ap);
+ va_end(ap);
+}
+
+void findentf(FILE *fd, int depth, char *fmt, ...)
+{
+ va_list ap;
+ va_start(ap, fmt);
+ vfindentf(fd, depth, fmt, ap);
+ va_end(ap);
+}
+
+void vfindentf(FILE *fd, int depth, char *fmt, va_list ap)
+{
+ ssize_t i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < depth; i++)
+ fprintf(fd, "\t");
+ vfprintf(fd, fmt, ap);
+}
+
+static int optinfo(Optctx *ctx, char arg, int *take, int *mand)
+{
+ char *s;
+
+ for (s = ctx->optstr; *s != '\0'; s++) {
+ if (*s == arg) {
+ s++;
+ if (*s == ':') {
+ *take = 1;
+ *mand = 1;
+ return 1;
+ } else if (*s == '?') {
+ *take = 1;
+ *mand = 0;
+ return 1;
+ } else {
+ *take = 0;
+ *mand = 0;
+ return 1;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int findnextopt(Optctx *ctx)
+{
+ size_t i;
+
+ for (i = ctx->argidx + 1; i < ctx->noptargs; i++) {
+ if (ctx->optargs[i][0] == '-')
+ goto foundopt;
+ else
+ lappend(&ctx->args, &ctx->nargs, ctx->optargs[i]);
+ }
+ ctx->finished = 1;
+ return 0;
+foundopt:
+ ctx->argidx = i;
+ ctx->curarg = ctx->optargs[i] + 1; /* skip initial '-' */
+ return 1;
+}
+
+void optinit(Optctx *ctx, char *optstr, char **optargs, size_t noptargs)
+{
+ ctx->args = NULL;
+ ctx->nargs = 0;
+
+ ctx->optstr = optstr;
+ ctx->optargs = optargs;
+ ctx->noptargs = noptargs;
+ ctx->optdone = 0;
+ ctx->finished = 0;
+ ctx->argidx = 0;
+ ctx->curarg = "";
+ findnextopt(ctx);
+}
+
+int optnext(Optctx *ctx)
+{
+ int take, mand;
+ int c;
+
+ c = *ctx->curarg;
+ ctx->curarg++;
+ if (!optinfo(ctx, c, &take, &mand)) {
+ printf("Unexpected argument %c\n", *ctx->curarg);
+ exit(1);
+ }
+
+ ctx->optarg = NULL;
+ if (take) {
+ if (*ctx->curarg) {
+ ctx->optarg = ctx->curarg;
+ ctx->curarg += strlen(ctx->optarg);
+ } else if (ctx->argidx < ctx->noptargs - 1) {
+ ctx->optarg = ctx->optargs[ctx->argidx + 1];
+ ctx->argidx++;
+ } else if (mand) {
+ fprintf(stderr, "expected argument for %c\n", *ctx->curarg);
+ }
+ findnextopt(ctx);
+ } else {
+ if (*ctx->curarg == '\0')
+ findnextopt(ctx);
+ }
+ return c;
+}
+
+int optdone(Optctx *ctx) { return *ctx->curarg == '\0' && ctx->finished; }
diff --git a/util/util.h b/util/util.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e16848d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/util/util.h
@@ -0,0 +1,129 @@
+#ifdef __GNUC__
+#define FATAL __attribute__((noreturn))
+#else
+#define FATAL
+#endif
+
+typedef uint8_t byte;
+typedef unsigned int uint;
+typedef unsigned long ulong;
+typedef long long vlong;
+typedef unsigned long long uvlong;
+
+typedef struct Htab Htab;
+typedef struct Bitset Bitset;
+typedef struct Optctx Optctx;
+typedef struct Str Str;
+typedef struct Strbuf Strbuf;
+
+struct Htab {
+ size_t nelt;
+ size_t ndead;
+ size_t sz;
+ ulong (*hash)(void *k);
+ int (*cmp)(void *a, void *b);
+ void **keys;
+ void **vals;
+ ulong *hashes;
+ char *dead;
+};
+
+struct Bitset {
+ size_t nchunks;
+ size_t *chunks;
+};
+
+struct Optctx {
+ /* public exports */
+ char *optarg;
+ char **args;
+ size_t nargs;
+
+ /* internal state */
+ char *optstr;
+ char **optargs;
+ size_t noptargs;
+ size_t argidx;
+ int optdone; /* seen -- */
+ int finished;
+ char *curarg;
+};
+
+struct Str {
+ size_t len;
+ char *buf;
+};
+
+struct Strbuf {
+ char *buf;
+ size_t sz;
+ size_t len;
+};
+
+/* string buffer */
+Strbuf *mksb();
+char *sbfin(Strbuf *sb);
+void sbputs(Strbuf *sb, char *s);
+void sbputb(Strbuf *sb, char b);
+
+/* hash tables */
+Htab *mkht(ulong (*hash)(void *key), int (*cmp)(void *k1, void *k2));
+void htfree(Htab *ht);
+int htput(Htab *ht, void *k, void *v);
+void htdel(Htab *ht, void *k);
+void *htget(Htab *ht, void *k);
+int hthas(Htab *ht, void *k);
+void **htkeys(Htab *ht, size_t *nkeys);
+ulong strhash(void *key);
+int streq(void *a, void *b);
+ulong strlithash(void *key);
+int strliteq(void *a, void *b);
+ulong ptrhash(void *key);
+int ptreq(void *a, void *b);
+ulong inthash(uint64_t key);
+int inteq(uint64_t a, uint64_t b);
+
+/* util functions */
+void *zalloc(size_t size);
+void *xalloc(size_t size);
+void *zrealloc(void *p, size_t oldsz, size_t size);
+void *xrealloc(void *p, size_t size);
+void die(char *msg, ...) FATAL;
+char *strdupn(char *s, size_t len);
+char *strjoin(char *u, char *v);
+void *memdup(void *mem, size_t len);
+size_t bprintf(char *buf, size_t len, char *fmt, ...);
+
+/* indented printf */
+void indentf(int depth, char *fmt, ...);
+void findentf(FILE *fd, int depth, char *fmt, ...);
+void vfindentf(FILE *fd, int depth, char *fmt, va_list ap);
+
+/* serializing/unserializing */
+void be64(vlong v, byte buf[8]);
+vlong host64(byte buf[8]);
+void be32(long v, byte buf[4]);
+long host32(byte buf[4]);
+static inline intptr_t ptoi(void *p) { return (intptr_t)p; }
+static inline void *itop(intptr_t i) { return (void *)i; }
+
+void wrbuf(FILE *fd, void *buf, size_t sz);
+void rdbuf(FILE *fd, void *buf, size_t sz);
+char rdbyte(FILE *fd);
+void wrbyte(FILE *fd, char val);
+char rdbyte(FILE *fd);
+void wrint(FILE *fd, long val);
+long rdint(FILE *fd);
+void wrstr(FILE *fd, char *val);
+char *rdstr(FILE *fd);
+void wrlenstr(FILE *fd, Str str);
+void rdlenstr(FILE *fd, Str *str);
+void wrflt(FILE *fd, double val);
+double rdflt(FILE *fd);
+void wrbool(FILE *fd, int val);
+int rdbool(FILE *fd);
+
+size_t max(size_t a, size_t b);
+size_t min(size_t a, size_t b);
+size_t align(size_t sz, size_t a);
+