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@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
The Myrddin Programming Language
- Jun 2012
+ Aug 2012
Ori Bernstein
Myrddin is designed to be a simple, low level programming
language. It is designed to provide the programmer with
@@ -16,195 +16,342 @@ Overview:
easy to understand language for work that needs to be close
to the hardware.
+ Myrddin is a computer language influenced strongly by C
+ and ML, with ideas from Rust, Go, C++, and numerous other
+ sources and resources.
+ The language is composed of several classes of token. There
+ are comments, identifiers, keywords, punctuation, and whitespace.
+ Comments, begin with "/*" and end with "*/". They may nest.
+ /* this is a comment /* with another inside */ */
+ Identifiers begin with any alphabetic character or underscore,
+ and continue with any number of alphanumeric characters or
+ underscores. Currently the compiler places a limit of 1024
+ bytes on the length of the identifier.
+ some_id_234__
+ Keywords are a special class of identifier that is reserved
+ by the language and given a special meaning. The set of
+ keywords in Myrddin are as follows:
+ castto match
+ const pkg
+ default protect
+ elif sizeof
+ else struct
+ export trait
+ extern true
+ false type
+ for union
+ generic use
+ goto var
+ if while
+ At the current stage of development, not all of these keywords
+ are implemented within the language.[1]
+ Literals are a direct representation of a data object within the
+ source of the program. There are several literals implemented
+ within the Myrddin language:
+ Integers literals are a sequence of digits, beginning with a
+ digit and possibly separated by underscores. They are of a
+ generic type, and can be used where any numeric type is
+ expected. They may be prefixed with "0x" to indicate that the
+ following number is a hexadecimal value, or 0b to indicate a
+ binary value. Decimal values are not prefixed, and octal values
+ are not supported.
+ eg: 0x123_fff, 0b1111, 1234
+ Float literals are also a sequence of digits beginning with a
+ digit and possibly separated by underscores. They are also of a
+ generic type, and may be used whenever a floating point type is
+ expected. Floating point literals are always in decimal, and
+ as of this writing, exponential notation is not supported[2]
+ eg: 123.456
+ String literals represent a byte array describing a string in
+ the compile time character set. Any byte values are allowed in
+ a string literal. There are a number of escape sequences
+ supported:
+ \n newline
+ \r carriage return
+ \t tab
+ \b backspace
+ \" double quote
+ \' single quote
+ \v vertical tab
+ \\ single slash
+ \0 nul character
+ \xDD single byte value, where DD are two hex digits.
+ String literals begin with a ", and continue to the next
+ unescaped ".
+ eg: "foo\"bar"
+ Character literals represent a single codepoint in the character
+ set. A character starts with a single quote, contains a single
+ codepoint worth of text, encoded either as an escape sequence
+ or in the input character set for the compiler (generally UTF8).
+ eg: 'א', '\n', '\u1234'[3]
+ Boolean literals are either the keyword "true" or the keyword
+ "false".
+ eg: true, false
+ Funciton literals describe a function. They begin with a '{',
+ followed by a newline-terminated argument list, followed by a
+ body and closing '}'. They will be described in more detail
+ later in this manual.
+ eg: {a : int, b
+ -> a + b
+ }
+ Sequence literals describe either an array or a structure
+ literal. They begin with a '[', followed by an initializer
+ sequence and closing ']'. For array literals, the initializer
+ sequence is either an indexed initializer sequence[4], or an
+ unindexed initializer sequence. For struct literals, the
+ initializer sequence is always a named initializer sequence.
+ An unindexed initializer sequence is simply a comma separated
+ list of values. An indexed initializer sequence contains a
+ '#number=value' comma separated sequence, which indicates the
+ index of the array into which the value is inserted. A named
+ initializer sequence contains a comma separated list of
+ '.name=value' pairs.
+ eg: [1,2,3], [#2=3, #1=2, #0=1], [.a = 42, .b="str"]
+ A tuple literal is a parentheses separated list of values.
+ A single element tuple contains a trailing comma.
+ eg: (1,), (1,'b',"three")
+ Myrddin syntax will likely have a familiar-but-strange taste
+ to many people. Many of the concepts and constructions will be
+ similar to those present in C, but different.
+ 3.1: Declarations:
+ A declaration consists of a declaration class (ie, one
+ of 'const', 'var', or 'generic'), followed by a declaration
+ name, optionally followed by a type and assignment. One thing
+ you may note is that unlike most other languages, there is no
+ special function declaration syntax. Instead, a function is
+ declared like any other value: By assigning its name to a
+ constant or variable.
+ const: Declares a constant value, which may not be
+ modified at run time. Constants must have
+ initializers defined.
+ var: Declares a variable value. This value may be
+ assigned to, copied from, and
+ generic: Declares a specializable value. This value
+ has the same restricitions as a const, but
+ taking its address is not defined. The type
+ parameters for a generic must be explicitly
+ named in the declaration in order for their
+ substitution to be allowed.
+ Examples:
+ Declare a constant with a value 123. The type is not defined,
+ and will be inferred.
+ const x = 123
+ Declares a variable with no value and no type defined. The
+ value can be assigned later (and must be assigned before use),
+ and the type will be inferred.
+ var y
+ Declares a generic with type '@a', and assigns it the value
+ 'blah'. Every place that 'z' is used, it will be specialized,
+ and the type parameter '@a' will be substituted.
+ generic z : @a = blah
+ Declares a function f with and without type inference. Both
+ forms are equivalent. 'f' takes two parameters, both of type
+ int, and returns their sum as an int
+ const f = {a, b
+ var c : int = 42
+ -> a + b + c
+ }
+ const f : (a : int, b : int -> int) = {a : int, b : int -> int
+ var c : int = 42
+ -> a + b + c
+ }
+ 3.2: Data Types:
+ The language defines a number of built in primitive types. These
+ are not keywords, and in fact live in a separate namespace from
+ the variable names. Yes, this does mean that you could, if you want,
+ define a variable named 'int'.
+ There are no implicit conversions within the language. All types
+ must be explicitly cast if you want to convert, and the casts must
+ be of compatible types, as will be described later.
+ 3.2.1. Primitive types:
+ void
+ bool char
+ int8 uint8
+ int16 uint16
+ int32 uint32
+ int64 uint64
+ int uint
+ long ulong
+ float32 float64
+ These types are as you would expect. 'void' represents a
+ lack of type, although for the sake of genericity, you can
+ assign between void, return void, and so on. This allows
+ generics to not have to somehow work around void being a
+ toxic type.
- We begin with the archetypical "Hello world" example, deconstructing
- it as we go:
+ bool is a boolean type, and can only be used for assignment
+ and comparison.
- use std
+ char is a 32 bit integer type, and is guaranteed to be able
+ to hold exactly one codepoint. It can be assigned integer
+ literals, tested against, compared, and all the other usual
+ numeric types.
- const main = {
- /* say hello */
- std.write(1, "Hello World\n")
- }
+ The various [u]intXX types hold, as expected, signed and
+ unsigned integers of the named sizes respectively.
+ Similarly, floats hold floating point types with the
+ indicated precision.
+ var x : int declare x as an int
+ var y : float32 declare y as a 32 bit float
- The first line, `use std`, tells the compiler to import the standard
- library, which at the time of this writing only barely exists as a
- copy-paste group of files that works only on Linux, implementing almost
- no useful functions. One of the functions that it does provide,
- however, is the 'write' system call.
- The next line, 'const main = ...' declares a constant value called
- 'main'. These constant values must be initialized at their declaration
- to a literal value. In this case, it is intialized to a constant
- function '{;std.write(1, "Hello World\n");}'
+ 3.2.2. Composite types:
- In Myrddin, all functions begin with a '{', followed by a list
- of arguments, which is terminated by a newline (or semicolon. The
- two are equivalent). This is followed by any number of statements,
- and closed by a '}'.
+ pointer
+ slice array
- The text '/* say hello */' is a comment. It is ignored by the compiler,
- and is used to add useful information for the programmer. In Myrddin,
- unlike many popular languages, comments nest. This makes code like
- /* outer /* inner coment */ comment */ valid.
+ Pointers are, as expected, values that hold the address of
+ the pointed to value. They are declared by appending a '*'
+ to the type. Pointer arithmetic is not allowed. They are
+ declared by appending a '*' to the base type
- The text 'std.write' refers the 'write' function from the 'std' library.
- In Myrddin, a name can belong to an imported namespace. The language,
- for reasons of parsimony, only allows one level of namespace. I saw
- Java package names and ran screaming in horror, possibly too far to
- the other extreme. This function is statically typed, taking a single
- integer argument, and a byte slice to write.
+ Arrays are a group of N values, where N is part of the type.
+ Arrays of different sizes are incompatible. Arrays in
+ Myrddin, unlike many other languages, are passed by value.
+ They are declared by appending a '[SIZE]' to the base type.
- The text '(1, "Hello World)' is the function call itself. It takes
- the literal "1", and the byte slice "Hello World\n", and calls the
- function 'std.write' with them as arguments.
+ Slices are similar to arrays in many contemporary languages.
+ They are reference types that store the length of their
+ contents. They are declared by appending a '[,]' to the base
+ type.
+ foo* type: pointer to foo
+ foo[123] type: array of 123 foo
+ foo[,] type: slice of foo
- It would be useful now to specify that the value '1' is an integer-like
- constant, but it is not an integer. It is polymorphic, and can be used
- at any point where a value of any integer type is needed.
+ 3.2.3. Aggregate types:
+ tuple struct
+ union
- In Myrddin, declarations take the following form:
+ Tuples are the traditional product type. They are declared
+ by putting the comma separated list of types within square
+ brackets.
- var|const|generic name [: type] [= expr]
+ Structs are aggregations of types with named members. They
+ are declared by putting the word 'struct' before a block of
+ declaration cores (ie, declarations without the storage type
+ specifier).
- To give a few examples:
+ Unions are the traditional sum type. They consist of a tag
+ (a keyword prefixed with a '`' (backtick)) indicating their
+ current contents, and a type to hold. They are declared by
+ placing the keyword 'union' before a list of tag-type pairs.
- var x
- var foo : int
- const c = 123
- const pi : float32 = 3.1415
- generic id : (@a -> @a) = {a:@a -> @a; -> a}
+ [int, int, char] a tuple of 2 ints and a char
- The first example, 'var x', declares a variable named x. The type is not
- set explicitly, but it will be determined by the compiler (or the code
- will fail to compile, saying that the type of the variable could not
- be determined).
+ struct a struct containing an int named
+ a : int 'a', and a char named 'b'.
+ b : char
+ ;;
- The second example, 'var foo : int' explicitly sets the type of a
- variable named 'foo' to an integer. It does not initialize it. However,
- it is [FIXME: make this not a lie] a compilation error to use a
- variable without prior intialization, so this is not dangerous.
+ union a union containing one of
+ `Thing int int or char. The values are not
+ `Other float32 named, but they are tagged.
+ ;;
- The third example, 'cosnt c = 123' declares a constant named c,
- and initializes it to the value 123. All constants require initializers,
- as they cannot be assigned to later in the code.
- The fourth example, 'const pi : float32 = 3.1415', shows the full form
- of declarations. It includes both the type and initializer components.
+ 3.2.4. Magic types:
- The final "overdeclared" example declares a generic function called
- 'id', which takes any type '@a' and returns the same type. It is
- initialized to a function which specifies these types again, and
- has a body that returns it's argument. This is not idiomatic code,
- and is only provided as an example of what is possible. The normal
- declaration would look something like this:
+ tyvar typaram
+ tyname
- generic id = {a:@a; -> a}
+ A tyname is a named type, similar to a typedef in C, however
+ it genuinely creates a new type, and not an alias. There are
+ no implicit conversions, but a tyname will inherit all
+ constraints of its underlying type.
-Control Structures:
+ A typaram is a parametric type. It is used in generics as
+ a placeholder for a type that will be substituted in later.
+ It is an identifier prefixed with '@'. These are only valid
+ within generic contexts, and may not appear elsewhere.
+ A tyvar is an internal implementation detail that currently
+ leaks out during type inference, and is a major cause of
+ confusing error messages. It should not be in this manual,
+ except that the current incarnation of the compiler will
+ make you aware of it. It looks like '@$type', and is a
+ variable that holds an incompletely inferred type.
- Myrddin comes with a large number of built in types. These are
- listed below:
+ type mine = int creates a tyname named
+ 'mine', equivalent to int.
- void
- The void type. This type represents an empty value.
- For reasons of consistency when specializing generics, void
- values can be created, assigned to, and manipulated like
- any other value.
- bool
- A Boolean type. The value of this is either 'true' (equivalent
- to any non-zero) or 'false', equivalent to a zero value. The
- size of this type is undefined.
+ @foo creates a type parameter
+ named '@foo'.
- char
- A value representing a single code point in the default
- encoding. The encoding is undefined, and the value of the
- character is opaque.
+ 3.2.5. Traits:
+ 3.3: Control Constructs:
+ 3.4: Packages and Uses:
+ 3.5: Expressions
- int8 int16 int32 int64 int
- uint8 uint16 uint32 uint64 uint
- Integer types. For the above types, the number at the end
- represents the size of the type. The ones without a number at
- the end are of undefined type. These values can be assumed to
- be in two's complement. The semantics of overflowing are yet to
- be specified.
+4. TYPES:
- float32 float64
- Floating-point types. The exact semantics are yet to be
- defined.
- @<name>
- A generic type. This is only allowed in the scope of 'generic'
- constants.
- It also allows composite types to be defined. These are listed below:
- <type>*
- A pointer to a type This type does not support C-style pointer
- arithmetic, indexing, or any other such manipulation. However,
- slices of it can be taken, which subsumes the majority of uses
- for pointer arithmetic. The pointer is passed by value, but as
- expected, the pointed to value is not.
- <type>[,]
- A slice of a type. Slices point to a number of objects. They
- can be indexed, sliced, and assigned. They carry their range,
- and can in principle be bounds-checked (although the compiler
- currently does not do this, due to the lack of a runtime library
- that will allow a 'panic' function to be called).
- <type>[size]
- An array of <type>. Unlike most languages other than Pascal, the
- size of the array is a part of it's type, and arrays of
- different sizes may not be assigned between each other. Arrays
- are passed by value, and copied when assigned.
- <type0>,<type1>,...,<typeN>
- A tuple of type t0, t1, t2, ....
- Finally, there are aggregate types that can be defined:
- struct
- union
- Any of these types can be given a name. This naming defines a new
- type which inherits all the constraints of the previous type, but
- does not unify with it. Eg:
- type t = int
- var x : t
- var y : int
- x = y // type error
- x = 42 // sure, why not?
-Type Constraints
- character
- bool
- int
- float
- func
- sequence
+[1] TODO: trait, default, protect,
+[2] TODO: exponential notation.
+[3] TODO: \uDDDD escape sequences not yet recognized
+[4] TODO: currently the only sequence literal implemented is the
+ unindexed one